Symptoms of pain and lameness can be the result of any trauma to bones, joints, or the supporting soft tissues, but often they are caused by specific diseases of the bone. During normal growth and development, cartilage growth precedes bone formation. The cartilage grows and becomes calcified.
Symptoms of pain and lameness can be the result of any trauma to bones, joints, or the supporting soft tissues, but often they are caused by specific diseases of the bone. During normal growth and development, cartilage growth precedes bone formation.
The cartilage grows and becomes calcified. Vessels from the bone marrow invade this calcified layer of cartilage. Some of the calcified cartilage is resorbed, but some remains and is used as a framework for the bone.
In instances of bone disease, one or more of these steps is interrupted and the formation of bone ceases or causes a defect if bone formation continues.
Exposure of incompletely formed or abnormally formed bone to pressure and tension resulting from movement causes symptoms of pain and lameness. It is important to understand that "growing pains" are a symptom and do not constitute a diagnosis.
For proper treatment of bone disease and prevention of further bone damage leading to secondary complications of osteoarthritis, it is essential that the underlying cause of pain and lameness be identified.
How are bone disorders diagnosed? There are multitudes of disorders that may present symptoms of joint pain and lameness in growing, active dogs. Observation of clinical 401 uap and physical examination alone, therefore, are not sufficient to accurately diagnose growth-associated disorders.
Survey radiography x-ray imaging is often reliable for the identification and differentiation of many bone and joint disorders. Often, however, particularly in the early stages of disease, radiographic evidence of bone changes associated with a disease process may be minimal or absent despite clinical symptoms.
Additionally, some joint abnormalities are not clearly discerned by conventional x-rays. Therefore, in the presence of significant pain and lameness despite negative findings on x-ray, computed axial tomography CT or magnetic resonance imaging MRI is often successful in detecting bone and joint abnormalities that are overlooked by survey radiography.
Additionally, CT and MRI are considered invaluable for pre-operative planning in cases where corrective surgery is indicated. Another approach that may be used alone or in combination with diagnostic imaging is the laboratory collection and analysis of joint fluid from the effected limb. This method may be helpful in confirming presence of joint disease even in the absence of detectable disease by imaging techniques.
Additionally, joint fluid analysis will discern between inflammatory and non-inflammatory joint disease, as well as detect presence of a bacterial infection. However, a major limitation of joint fluid analysis is that it is unable to differentiate between one inflammatory or non-inflammatory disorder and another.
What causes bone disorders? There is no single factor that has been identified in causing any of the various bone diseases, rather, certain "risk factors" are attributed to increased occurrence of these disorders in dogs. Size is widely considered a predisposing risk factor.
Dogs of large and giant breeds undergo a more rapid growth phase during their first year of development putting them at greater risk for skeletal abnormalities.
Excessive calcium supplementation and rapid weight gain are also considered risk factors, however, evidence supporting a role of other nutritional factors such as high protein or carbohydrate diets is not as strong.
Additionally, clinical data suggests that the role of nutrition in the development of the various skeletal diseases is more of a modulating effect.
In other words, controlling for nutrition alone will not prevent these diseases, rather nutritional management may lessen the severity of disease in those dogs predisposed by other factors such as size, genetics, trauma or as of yet unknown causes.
What are some of the common bone disorders affecting dogs?
The most common bone disorders affecting growing dogs will be described here.Growing Pains: Growth-Associated Bone Disorders in the Dog (revised and updated for ) What are "growing pains"? "Growing pains" are symptoms most often affecting medium, large, and giant breeds of dog: those breeds that are usually subjected to rapid growth periods within their .
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