Money supply decreased considerably between Black Tuesday and the Bank Holiday in March when there were massive bank runs across the United States. There are also various heterodox theories that downplay or reject the explanations of the Keynesians and monetarists. The consensus among demand-driven theories is that a large-scale loss of confidence led to a sudden reduction in consumption and investment spending.
For more information, click to see the Casualties of World War I. The outbreak of war between European nations was the result of several factors: This would increase German influence in the world and likely allow the country to expand its colonial holdings.
Russia was rebuilding and modernizing its large army and had begun a program of industrialization. They formed an alliance for self-protection against the Russian bear.
France, still stinging over the loss of Alsace and part of Lorraine in the Franco-Prussian war, made an agreement allying itself with Russia in any war with Germany or Austria-Hungary. Britain, after finding itself friendless during the Second Boer War in South Africa — allied itself with France and worked to improve relations with the United States of America.
Russia, with many ethnic groups inside its vast expanse, made an alliance with Serbia in the Balkans. As its ability to exert control over its holdings in the Balkans weakened, ethnic and regional groups broke away and formed new states.
Rising nationalism led to the First and Second Balkan Wars, and As a result of those wars, Serbia increased its size and began pushing for a union of all South Slavic peoples. Serbian nationalism led year-old Gavrilo Princip to assassinate Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir apparent to the Habsburg throne of Austria-Hungary, and his wife, Sophie.
Austria-Hungary, urged on by Germany, sent a list of demands to Serbia in response; the demands were such that Serbia was certain to reject them. Russia came in on the side of the Serbs, Germany on the side of the Habsburgs, and the entangling alliances between the nations of Europe pulled one after another into the war.
Although diplomats throughout Europe strove to settle matters without warfare right up to the time the shooting started, the influence military leaders enjoyed in many nations won out—along with desires to capture new lands or reclaim old ones.
Combat in the First World War German military planners were ready when the declarations of war began flying across Europe. They intended to hold off the Russians in the east, swiftly knock France out of the war through a maneuver known as the Schliefffen Plan, then throw their full force, along with Austria-Hungary, against the Russians.
The Schliefffen Plan, named for General Count Alfred von Schlieffen who created it incalled for invading the Low Countries Luxembourg and Belgium in order to bypass to the north the strong fortifications along the French border.
After a rapid conquest of the Low Countries, the German advance would continue into northern France, swing around Paris to the west and capture the French capital. It almost worked, but German commander in chief General Helmuth von Moltke decided to send his forces east of Paris to engage and defeat the weakened French army head-on.
In doing so he exposed his right flank to counterattack by the French and a British Expeditionary Force, resulting in the First Battle of the Marne, September 6—10, Despite casualties in the hundreds of thousands, the battle was a stalemate, but it stopped the German drive on Paris.
Both sides began digging a network of trenches. The First Battle of the Marne was a window onto how the rest of the war would be fought: The centuries-old method of massed charges to break through enemy positions did not work when the men faced machine guns, barbed wire, and drastically more effective artillery than in the past.
The next four years would see battles in which millions of artillery shells were fired and millions of men were killed or mutilated.
Click here to read about some of the costliest battles of the First World War. Deadly new weapons were responsible for the unprecedented carnage. New Weapons of World War I Among the lethal technological developments that were used for the first time or in some cases used for the first time in a major conflict during the Great War were the machine gun, poison gas, flamethrowers, tanks and aircraft.
Artillery increased dramatically in size, range and killing power compared to its 19th-century counterparts.
In the war at sea, submarines could strike unseen from beneath the waves, using torpedoes to send combat and merchant ships to the bottom. Click here for more information on Weapons of World War I.
War on the Eastern Front On the Eastern Front, the German general Paul von Hindenburg and his chief of staff Erich Ludendorff engineered strategies that gave them dramatic victories over Russian armies. The war became increasing unpopular among the Russian people. As hoped, Lenin helped fuel the rising revolutionary fervor.
The tsar was deposed and executed with his family in the March revolution. When the new government failed to bring about a rapid peace, it was overthrown in November by a socialist revolution led by Lenin, following which Russia signed a peace agreement with Germany.
War in the Mountains Fighting in the high elevations of the Balkans and Alps created additional agony for soldiers fighting there: Serbia, whose countryman had fired the shots that gave rise to the slaughter taking place in Europe, was invaded twice by Austria-Hungary but repulsed both attempts.
In the autumn ofa third invasion came. This time the Hapsburgs were joined by Germany and Bulgaria.World War I summary: The war fought between July 28, , and November 11, , was known at the time as the Great War, the War to End War, and (in the United States) the European War.
Only when the world went to war again in the s and ’40s did the earlier . World War II Summary & Analysis. BACK; NEXT ; A Troubled World. In the s, the United States found itself largely preoccupied with the domestic economic troubles of the Great Depression, even as international crises loomed in Europe and Asia.
English literature - The literature of World War I and the interwar period: The impact of World War I upon the Anglo-American Modernists has been noted.
In addition the war brought a variety of responses from the more-traditionalist writers, predominantly poets, who saw action. Rupert Brooke caught the idealism of the opening months of the war . Jul 21, · "World War I definitely gives a push forward to the idea of dystopia rather than utopia, to the idea that the world is going to get worse rather than better," Braudy said.
When war broke out in summer , artists were among its biggest cheerleaders. Get an answer for 'How did WWI affect popular art in the s?' and find homework help for other History questions at eNotes.
It was the first world war. The Great Depression was a worldwide catastrophe whose causes and consequences alike were global in character. "The primary cause of the Great Depression," reads the first sentence of President Herbert Hoover’s Memoirs, "was the war of –" And that so-called Great War, along with the Depression it spawned, was the driver that eventually produced the even greater catastrophe of World War II.