While some scholars and historians argue that the renaissance did not happen outside Italy, but we cannot doubt that the 16th century was indeed a golden age of English literature.
An Allegory of the Tudor Succession, c. The Victorian era and the early 20th century idealised the Elizabethan era.
In popular culture, the image of those adventurous Elizabethan seafarers was embodied in the films of Errol Flynn. On balance, it can be said that Elizabeth provided the country with a long period of general if not total peace and generally increased prosperity due in large part to stealing from Spanish treasure ships, raiding settlements with low defenses, and selling African slaves.
Having inherited a virtually bankrupt state from previous reigns, her frugal policies restored fiscal responsibility. With taxes lower than other European countries of the period, the economy expanded; though the wealth was distributed with wild unevenness, there was clearly more wealth to go around at the end of Elizabeth's reign than at the beginning.
That would be a prelude to the religious recovery of England for Catholicism. Inthe Ridolfi plot was thwarted. Inthe Throckmorton Plot was discovered, after Francis Throckmorton confessed his involvement in a plot to overthrow the Queen and restore the Catholic Church in England.
Another major conspiracy was the Babington Plot — the event which most directly led to Mary's execution, the discovery of which involved a double agentGilbert Giffordacting under the direction of Francis Walsinghamthe Queen's highly effective spy master. The Essex Rebellion of has a dramatic element, as just before the uprising, supporters of the Earl of Essex, among them Charles and Joscelyn Percy younger brothers of the Earl of Northumberlandpaid for a performance of Richard II at the Globe Theatreapparently with the goal of stirring public ill will towards the monarchy.
It was discovered in time with eight conspirators executed, including Guy Fawkeswho became the iconic evil traitor in English lore. Elizabeth made naval strength a high priority. The Navy yards were leaders in technical innovation, and the captains devised new tactics.
Parker argues that the full-rigged ship was one of the greatest technological advances of the century and permanently transformed naval warfare. In English shipwrights introduced designs, first demonstrated in the "Dreadnaught", that allowed the ships to sail faster and maneuver better and permitted heavier guns.
When Spain finally decided to invade and conquer England it was a fiasco. Superior English ships and seamanship foiled the invasion and led to the destruction of the Spanish Armada inmarking the high point of Elizabeth's reign.
Technically, the Armada failed because Spain's over-complex strategy required coordination between the invasion fleet and the Spanish army on shore. Moreover, the poor design of the Spanish cannons meant they were much slower in reloading in a close-range battle. Spain and France still had stronger fleets, but England was catching up.
He argues that the Spanish army was larger, more experienced, better-equipped, more confident, and had better financing. The English defenses, on the other hand, were thin and outdated; England had too few soldiers and they were at best only partially trained. Spain had chosen England's weakest link and probably could have captured London in a week.
Parker adds that a Catholic uprising in the north and in Ireland could have brought total defeat. English colonial empire The discoveries of Christopher Columbus electrified all of western Europe, especially maritime powers like England.
Cabot sailed in and reached Newfoundland. Spain was well established in the Americas, while Portugal, in union with Spain fromhad an ambitious global empire in Africa, Asia and South America.
France was exploring North America. Martin Frobisher landed at Frobisher Bay on Baffin Island in August ; He returned inclaiming it in Queen Elizabeth's name, and in a third voyage tried but failed to found a settlement in Frobisher Bay.
Combined with his daring raids against the Spanish and his great victory over them at Cadiz inhe became a famous hero   —his exploits are still celebrated—but England did not follow up on his claims.
Raleigh and Elizabeth sought both immediate riches and a base for privateers to raid the Spanish treasure fleets.
Raleigh sent others to found the Roanoke Colony ; it remains a mystery why the settlers all disappeared. It established trading posts, which in later centuries evolved into British Indiaon the coasts of what is now India and Bangladesh.Golden Age, Spanish Siglo De Oro, the period of Spanish literature extending from the early 16th century to the late 17th century, generally considered the high point in Spain’s literary history.
The Golden Age began with the partial political unification of Spain about Purity of blood (pureza [limpieza] Challenges as erroneous and unreliable the analysis of Golden-Age Spain by Castro and his followers, who argued that the cult of purity of blood, which Castro associated with the Inquisition, had a negative influence on the intellectual life of the Spanish nation.
Art, 16th- and 17th-Century Flemish. – Kapur, Elizabeth: The Golden Age 16th century, , film analysis A mature Queen Elizabeth endures multiple crises late in her reign including court intrigues, an assassination plot, the Spanish Armada, and romantic disappointments.
FRANCE AND ENGLAND. In the literature of northern Europe, the sixteenth century marks the flowering of the barnweddingvt.com some countries, such as England, the literary Renaissance continued well into the following century.
This chapter will deal with some of the important currents and authors in French and English literature of the sixteenth century. Literary works in sixteenth-century England were rarely if ever created in isolation from other currents in the social and cultural world. THE PERIOD OF RENAISSANCE IN ENGLISH LITERATURE architecture, in the fifteenth century.
As England became the most powerful nation in Europe in the late sixteenth century, new worlds were discovered and new ways of seeing and thinking developed.
Columbus discovered became the symbol of the Golden Age, the period of stability from