Flynn effect Since the early 20th century, raw scores on IQ tests have increased in most parts of the world. The phenomenon of rising raw score performance means if test-takers are scored by a constant standard scoring rule, IQ test scores have been rising at an average rate of around three IQ points per decade. Flynnthe author who did the most to bring this phenomenon to the attention of psychologists.
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History, Theory and Research Strategies Child development: Area of study devoted to understanding constancy and change from conception through adolescence Developmental science: All changes we experience throughout lifespan Field of child development - Not just of scientific interest.
Applied or practical importance - Stimulated by social pressures - Interdisciplinary: Large storehouse of info about child development Domains of development - Divided into 3 domains o Physical, cognitive, and emotional and social o Not really distinct o Combined in an integrated holistic fashion o Each domain influences and is influenced by the others Periods of Development - Prenatal period: From conception to birth, 9 month period, most rapid time of change - Infancy Psych 211 chapter 1 toddlerhood: From birth to 2 years, dramatic changes in the body and brain, beginnings of language and first intimate ties - Early childhood: From 2 to 6 years, body more longer and leaner, motor skills, more self- controlled, morality evident - Middle childhood: From 6 to 11 years, learn about the world, athletic abilities, more logical thought processes, academic knowledge and skills - Adolescence: From 11 to 18 years, transition to adulthood, puberty o Transition to adult prolonged, new period of development called emerging adulthood from 18 to 25 o Adults moved beyond adolescence but not yet fully assumed adult roles Basic Issues - Theory: Orderly set of statements that describes, explains and predicts behavior o Organizing frameworks that guide and give meaning to what we see o Sound basis for practical action o Influenced by cultural values and belief systems - Scientific verification: Continuous or Discontinuous Development - Difference between immature and the mature is amount of complexity - Continuous: Process of gradually adding more of the same types of skills that were there to begin with - Discontinuous: New ways of understanding and responding to the world come at specific times - Stages: Qualitative changes in thinking, feeling and behaving that characterize specific periods of development - Change in fairly sudden rather than gradual and ongoing One Course of Development or Many?
Combinations of personal and environmental circumstances that result in different paths of change - Difference circumstances foster different cognitive capacities, social skills and feelings about the self and others - Contemporary theorists regard the contexts that mold development as many layered and complex Relative Influence of Nature and Nurture?
Are genetic or environmental factors more important in influencing development? Biological givens, hereditary information we receive from our parents at the moment of conception o Nurture: Complex forces of the physical and social world that influence our bio makeup and psychological experiences before and after birth - All theories vary in emphasis - Some theorists emphasize stability and heredity - Plasticity: Open to changes in response to influential experiences Biology and Environment - Resilience: Adapt effectively in the face of threats to development - 4 factors that protect damaging effects of stressful life events o Personal characteristics o Warm parental relationship o Social support outside the immediate family o Community resources and opportunities Behaviorism and Social Learning Theory - Behaviorism: Directly observable events, stimuli and responses are the focus of study - John Watson wanted to create an objective science of psychology- Traditional Behaviorism o Watson inspired by Ivan Pavlovs studies of animal learning o Pavlov discovered classical conditioning by learning to associate a neutral stimulus the trainer with another stimulus food that produces a reflexive response salivation o Watson concluded that environment is the supreme force in development and adults can mold childrens behavior by controlling stimulus response associations o B.
F Skinners operant conditioning theory Behavior can be increased by reinforces such as food or praise - Social Learning Theory o Most influential devised by Albert Bandura, emphasizes modeling, also known as imitation or observational learning as a powerful source of development o Stresses cognition o How children think about themselves and other people social cognitive o Children become more selective in what they imitate o Children develop personal standards for behavior and sense of self efficacy the belief that their own abilities and characteristics will help them succeed - Behavior modification: Consists of procedures that combine conditioning and modeling to.Start studying Psych Chapter 1.
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ECE Week 1 Discussion 2 High Quality Care and Education. High Quality Early Care and barnweddingvt.com this week’s two required videos: Brain Hero and Preschool: America’s Best barnweddingvt.com the concepts on quality ECEC explored in Chapter Four of your text and the two required videos, identify characteristics of what you would determine to be a “High Quality” early .
Patients were assessed within 1 month of engaging in treatment and on their 12th month to determine the effects of treatment on these dimensions.
The results of this investigation demonstrated positive treatment effects on the dimensions of personal care and interpersonal relationships.
Psychology - Kindle edition by Saundra K. Ciccarelli, J. Noland White.
Download this PSYCH class note to get exam ready in less time! Class note uploaded on Oct 2, 5 Page(s). ECE Week 1 Discussion 2 High Quality Care and Education. High Quality Early Care and barnweddingvt.com this week’s two required videos: Brain Hero and Preschool: America’s Best barnweddingvt.com the concepts on quality ECEC explored in Chapter Four of your text and the two required videos, identify characteristics of what you would determine to be a “High Quality” early . Chapter 1, Section & Chapter 2 (Chapter 3, ; Chapter 5, ) January 14 Sensory & Motor Development. Chapter 3 (Chapter 6) January 16 Sensory & Motor Development. Chapter 3 (Chapter 6) January Early Theories of Cognitive Development. Chapter 4 (Chapter 7) January 23 Early Theories of Cognitive.
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Behavioral Genetics and Animal Science TEMPLE GRANDIN AND MARK J. DEESING Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals (Chapter One) Acedemic Press