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Kilmann and Kenneth W. Thomas This article was originally published in Psychological Reports, Vol. These five modes were defined according to the two basic behavioral dimensions of assertiveness and cooperativeness and Term paper interpersonal divide also related to integrative and distributive dimensions.
The results suggest that the Jungian functions related to judging thinking vs. The study concludes with a schematic illustration of these Jungian functions plotted upon the basic behavioral dimensions which define and characterize the five conflict-handling modes.
First introduced by Blake and Moutonand reinterpreted by Thomas in pressthis scheme includes the five modes of competing, collaborating, compromising, avoiding, and accommodating. As operationalized in the interpersonal context by Blake and Mouton and later researchers, competing has been identified with forcing behavior and win-lose arguing; collaborating has been identified with confronting disagreements and problem solving to find solutions; avoiding has been identified with withdrawal and failure to take a position; accommodating has been identified with attempting to soothe the other person and seek harmony; and compromising has been identified with the proposal of middle-ground positions.
One of the advantages of this classification scheme is that the five specific modes reflect several more basic dimensions of interpersonal conflict behavior. As interpreted by Thomas in pressthe scheme is based Term paper interpersonal divide two separate dimensions: Figure 1 uses these two dimensions, represented by the horizontal and vertical axes, to plot the five conflict-handling modes: Two semantic differential studies reported by Ruble and Thomas in press provided evidence for the general meaningfulness of this two-dimensional model to subjects.
The underlying dimensions of cooperativeness and assertiveness corresponded strongly to the two primary semantic differential dimensions which subjects used to perceive each other in conflict situations. General support was also provided for the placement of the five modes along these two dimensions.
These dimensions are represented by the oblique arrows in Figure 1. Roughly speaking, the integration dimension represents the implications of party's behavior with respect to the total satisfaction for both persons in the conflict situation, while the distributive dimension represents the proportion of that satisfaction going to each person.
In other words, the integrative dimension represents the size of the pie available to both individuals while the distributive dimension represents the way they divide it up.
Along the distributive, or "give-and-take" dimension, competing is the epitome of taking, accommodating represents the extreme of giving, and the three other modes are intermediate. Along the integrative dimension, collaborating attempts to contribute to the size of the pie by finding alternatives which allow both parties to fully satisfy their concerns, avoiding reduces the size of the pie by neglecting an issue, and the other three modes are intermediate.
Thus, this scheme of conflict-handling modes provides a rich framework for investigating how individuals approach conflict situations, i. As such it appears to represent a significant improvement over the simpler cooperative-competitive dichotomy e.
Recently Terhune summarized the results of 30 studies which used 46 personality measures to predict conflict behavior, as described by the cooperative-competitive dichotomy. Finding it difficult to draw generalizations in many cases, Terhune noted that this simple dichotomy masked the more complex intentions of subjects in the situations studied.
While several research studies have explored the relationships between the five conflict-handling modes and social and organizational situations e.
In this initial investigation into this area, the present study selected the Jungian dimensions of personality Jung, as being particularly germane to conflict-handling behavior. In a recent study of the interpersonal dynamics of confrontation conflict versus support in a laboratory setting, Kilmann and Taylor found that the Jungian dimensions were exceedingly useful in predicting and explaining the effects of individual personality differences on these interpersonal dynamics.
In essence the Jungian dimensions describe the different ways that individuals observe perceiveassess judgeand enact introversion, extraversion some behavioral choice.
This conceptualization is consistent with the "process" models of conflict behavior Thomas, in press; Pondy, ; Walton, which describe the sequencing of an individual's perception and assessment of a conflict situation and his subsequent implementation of a conflict strategy or tactic.
Individual differences in psychological tendencies toward these processes were expected to influence the conflict-handling modes which the individual chooses in a given situation. Sensation occurs when data are taken in directly by the five senses-the actual concrete details of reality.
In contrast, perception via intuition involves "seeing" the whole Gestalt, attaching perspective, perceiving possibilities, and other associations that the unconscious generates and adds on to the data which are received. All individuals perceive with both of these functions at different times.
But as Jung argues, individuals tend to develop a preferred way of perceiving, and in fact, cannot apply both types of perception at the same exact time. Since this study was intended to be exploratory, specific hypotheses stipulating the expected relationships between the Jungian dimensions and the five conflict-handling modes including the several dimensions were not proposed.
Thinking and feeling are alternative forms of judging, or coming to conclusions. Thinking is the analytical, logical, reasoning process of coming to conclusions. In contrast, feeling comes to conclusions by attaching subjective, personal value to any object or phenomenon-like, dislike, appreciation, etc.
Thus, however one "takes in" data either by sensation or intuition an individual may come to some conclusion about the data either by a logical, impersonal analysis thinking or by a subjective, personal, "adding value to" process feeling.
Again, an individual tends to rely on one more than the other and cannot use both at the same time.
While individuals tend to capitalize on one of two ways of perceiving and one of two ways of judging, individuals also develop tendencies to prefer perceiving to judging or judging to perceiving, as entire functions. The person who is oriented mostly to perceiving, tends to spend his time taking data in either by sensation or intuition and just living his life as it develops.
The person oriented mainly to judging, is most concerned with coming to conclusions, making decisions, and determining the exact course of his life either by feeling or thinking.
Finally, there are two "attitudes" or directions in which the individual directs his energy, extraversion and introversion. Extraversion occurs when effort is expended toward the outside of the person in the world of people and things—doing things, interacting with the environment, etc.
A measurement technology has not yet been developed for objective or observational measures of the five conflict-handling modes, so that a definitive study of the relationship between Jungian personality dimensions and interpersonal conflict-handling behavior is not yet possible.
Therefore, the present study relied upon the existing self-assessment measures of conflict behavior to find preliminary evidence of these relationships.Four Principles of Interpersonal Communication Essay.
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