With this growth have come numerous social benefits that are paired with ever increasing threats to societal health and wellbeing, damaging the environment we live in and the air we breathe. However, aviation is the safest, most efficient form of public transportation.
Two critical issues, however, have been partially sidelined as a result. How have actions by the U. This article offers a thorough review of recent aviation-related terrorist plots, subsequent mitigation strategies, and current terrorist intentions and capabilities dealing with commercial aviation.
It concludes by offering three steps security experts can take to reduce the terrorist threat to commercial aviation. In response to these incidents, the U. Many of these measures are well known to the public, including: Certain measures—such as invasive patdowns, AIT scanning, inducing passengers to remove jackets, belts, and shoes for inspection, and requiring them to travel with minimal amounts of liquid in their possession—have drawn widespread complaints regarding their inconvenience, as well as questions about their supposed efficacy.
The reactive nature of many such measures has been widely noted as well, with some security practices designed to counter highly specific attack techniques utilized in past terrorist plots. As indicated by numerous accounts, including the description of the cargo plot contained in Inspire, terrorists constantly seek to analyze existing aviation security measures to probe for weaknesses and develop countermeasures.
He also attempted to recruit fellow Muslims including a baggage handler at Heathrow Airport and an employee of airport security to stage an attack. Although TSA and U.
Inan individual named Takuma Owuo-Hagood obtained employment as a baggage handler for Delta Airlines, then promptly traveled to Afghanistan where he made contact with the Taliban, reportedly providing advice on how to effectively engage U.
Additional measures, such as random screening and security probes, are unable to effectively mitigate this threat. Although MANPADS are unable to target aircraft at cruising altitudes, commercial aircraft would become vulnerable for several miles while ascending and descending, particularly due to their lack of countermeasure systems.
In addition to the MANPAD threat, a significant variety of ranged weapons could be used to target commercial aircraft, particularly when taxiing prior to takeoff or after landing. Rocket-propelled grenades RPGsfor example, are inaccurate at extended ranges; however, they have been used to shoot down rotary wing aircraft in combat zones, and have been used in at least one plot against El Al aircraft.
IEDs, however, are likely to remain a significant threat to commercial aviation due to limitations in current screening technology. AIT can be defeated by concealing IEDs internally, either by the frequently discussed stratagem of surgically implanting devices in a would-be suicide bomber or by the simpler route of secreting the device within a body cavity.
ETDs and explosives detection dogs, meanwhile, can be defeated by numerous countermeasures. For example, many though not all ETD devices detect only two popular explosive compounds. ETD equipment is also not designed to detect the components of improvised incendiary devices IIDsmaking the use of these correspondingly attractive to terrorists.
Lastly, IEDs can be sealed and cleaned to degrade the ability of ETD equipment to detect explosive vapors or particles. Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab underwent two interviews by security staff prior to staging his attack on Northwest Airlines Flight in Despite their criticality to flight operations, these control centers are rarely heavily guarded, meaning that a team of attackers equipped with inside knowledge could temporarily shut down the global operations of a major air carrier, particularly if backup facilities were to be targeted as well.
Another threat to commercial aviation is the increasing number of plots and attacks targeting airports themselves rather than aircraft. There have been two significant attacks staged at international airports thus far in in Frankfurt and Moscow.
Attacks against airports have been planned or executed using a variety of tactics, such as firearms, car bombs, suicide bombers, and hijacked aircraft.They: establish and maintain the rules that all pilots, engineers, aircraft operators, airlines and aerodromes follow to keep flying safe; check these rules are being complied with and take action if they find that they are not.
challenges of tourism’s viability (see also the New Zealand Tourism Strategy, Ministry of Tourism, Tourism Industry Association and Tourism New Zealand, ). Tourism industry has contributes to the economic growth of a country through factors like industrialization, education, advance technology, higher number of .
Tourism is a significant employer in those PIC11 where tourism is a major industry. South Pacific Tourism Organization (SPTO) estimates indicate the highest levels of employment in Tonga, 15 percent, Samoa, 18 percent, and Palau, 50 percent. couriers, airports, tourism, and manufacturing.
This version also estimates the economic impact of general aviation, a uniquely American achievement. In addition the same time, the civil aviation industry • Supported million jobs, • Accounted for $ trillion in total economic activity, and.
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