Terminology[ edit ] The degree is abbreviated PhD sometimes Ph. All of these faculties awarded intermediate degrees bachelor of arts, of theology, of laws, of medicine and final degrees. The doctorates in the higher faculties were quite different from the current PhD degree in that they were awarded for advanced scholarship, not original research.
You will find ten articles about a variety of subjects, written by Dutch water professionals on the basis of thorough research.
|Terminology[ edit ] The degree is abbreviated PhD sometimes Ph. All of these faculties awarded intermediate degrees bachelor of arts, of theology, of laws, of medicine and final degrees.|
|Photochemical Reactions of Propenyl and Propynyl Substituted 4-Aminomethyl- and 4-Oxymethyl-2 5H -furanones Heterocycles88 2 The synthetic access to four-membered rings such as cyclobutanes is indeed a challenge using conventional methods - which explains their underrepresentation in Medicinal Chemistry.|
Repeated appeals and a personal approach have resulted in sufficient proposals for articles in order to enable the editorial board to make this selection. The board mainly looked at a clear relation with the daily practice in the water sector.
Research, results and findings must be new and produce articles which present new knowledge, insights and techniques with a view to a practical application. This edition also offers a wide range of subjects: The publication of Water Matters is made possible by prominent players in the Dutch water sector.
With the publication of Water Matters, the participating organizations wish to make new, applicable water knowledge accessible. You can also read Water Matters in digital form at H2O-online www. This publication is also available as a digital magazine in the English language via the same website or via www.
The English publication is partly made possible by the Netherlands Water Partnership NWPthe network of approximately collaborating public and private organizations in the area of water.
The articles in English can also be shared from the digital magazine at H2O-online. Furthermore, articles from previous editions can be found on the site.
We hope you enjoy reading this edition. If you have any comments, please let us know via redactie h2owaternetwerk.
There is a sustainable solution, where precipitation excess during the winter period is utilized as optimally as possible by storing the water underground. In saline groundwater environments with a large water demand, such as the Westland, greenhouse horticulture uses rainwater as its primary water source.
However, the storage capacity in aboveground reservoirs is generally insufficient for effectively collecting all the rainwater from wet periods.
This brackish water extraction and concentrate disposal has the risk that the salination of the groundwater will be reinforced and is for that reason under pressure in terms of policy. In less saline areas, underground storage of winter precipitation excess offers a sustainable alternative.
The excess precipitation from greenhouse roofs is infiltrated and stored via wells in the underground. In periods of shortage this water is recovered. This technique is known by the name of aquifer storage and recovery ASR.
In saline groundwater environments, such as the Westland, this technique can be applied to a moderate extent, because due to density differences the relatively light fresh infiltration water floats upwards during storage in the brackish aquifer.
The freshwater is therefore difficult to recover unmixed. In this article, we present a concept where ASR and desalination of brackish groundwater by means of Reverse Osmosis RO have been combined.
The set-up was tested at a tomato grower in the Westland in order to research the practical applicability. As a result, the excess rainwater of a total of 27 hectare of greenhouse roofs became available.
An ASR system was built in order to be able to infiltrate the rain water into a sand layer at a depth of 23 to 37 m, where the ambient groundwater was brackish approx. The ASR system was fed with the water that would otherwise be discharged unused from the rainwater reservoirs of the horticulturalist.
There was an attempt to keep these reservoirs at a filling degree of approx. Prior to infiltration, suspended solids were removed from the water using a slow sand filter.
The ASR system was designed to be able to recover a maximum of freshwater, despite upward floating and mixing. To this end, a number of adjustments have been introduced in relation to a simple ASR system see Figure 2: Water could be infiltrated in and recovered from the aquifer at three different depths; 2.
The intercepted brackish water was returned to a deeper aquifer 50 — 90 m deep ; 3. There was the option of desalinating the recovered water again, when mixing of freshwater with brackish water had occurred from May This water was extracted by means of ASR wells in the heart of the inserted freshwater bubble: In addition, this mixed water was also extracted with the already present extraction well belonging to the desalination system of Prominent on the edge of the freshwater bubble: This involved automatically measuring groundwater recharge and extraction, as well as the salinity on the basis of electrical conductivity of the extracted water.
By means of sensors, borehole geophysics, and sampling and analysis macro-chemistry, trace elements, modified fouling index MFI of groundwater at various depths at a distance of 5, 15, 30, 40 and 60 m from the ASR wells, the distribution and the water quality development of stored water was monitored.
In addition, a detailed 3-D, density-dependent groundwater model was set up with the model code SEAWAT in order to evaluate the transport processes in the aquifer and to understand the effects on the groundwater system. This recovery was limited because deeper groundwater could penetrate the aquifer via the borehole of an existing deeper ATES aquifer thermal energy storage system near the ASR wells Figure 1which could be shown by means of chemical analyses and modelling.The Netherlands had a considerable part in the making of modern society.
The Netherlands and its people have made numerous seminal contributions to the world's civilization, especially in art, science, technology and engineering, economics and finance, cartography and geography, exploration and navigation, law and jurisprudence, thought and philosophy, medicine, and agriculture.
Detailed requirements for the award of a PhD degree vary throughout the world and even from school to school. It is usually required for the student to hold an Honours degree or a Master's Degree with high academic standing, in order to be considered for a PhD program.
 In the US, Canada, India, and Denmark, for example, many . A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD, Ph.D., or DPhil; Latin Philosophiae doctor or Doctor philosophiae) is the highest academic degree awarded by universities in most barnweddingvt.com are awarded for programs across the whole breadth of academic fields.
As an earned research degree, those studying for this qualification are usually not only required to demonstrate subject-matter expertise and mastery by. COLOPHON. Water Matters is published by Royal Dutch Waternetwork and supported by Alterra Wageningen UR, ARCADIS, Deltares, KWR Watercycle Research Institute, Netherlands Water Partnership (NWP), Royal HaskoningDHV, Foundation for Applied Water Research (STOWA).
COLOPHON. Water Matters is published by Royal Dutch Waternetwork and supported by Alterra Wageningen UR, ARCADIS, Deltares, KWR Watercycle Research Institute, Netherlands Water Partnership (NWP), Royal HaskoningDHV, Foundation for Applied Water Research (STOWA).
Education: Student of chemistry at the Humboldt-University of Berlin Diploma thesis in the group of Prof Dr J Liebscher, "Nitroalkenes as Building Blocks for Optical Active Cyclopropyl Amino Acids".